Renault Zoe electric cars on the Outer HebridesEnlarge Photo
The Renault Zoe closed out 2016 as the best-selling electric car in Europe.
While the Nissan Leaf continues to lead in worldwide sales, the smaller electric car from Nissan's alliance partner has remained on top in its home market.
These consistent performances have cemented the Renault-Nissan Alliance's position as the world leader in battery-electric cars.
Through December 2016, the Zoe racked up 21,337 sales, giving it the largest share of the European market at 10.2 percent, according to the running tally of electric-car and plug-in hybrid sales kept by the European Alternative Fuels Observatory (EAFO).
The Leaf once again landed in second place with 18,557 sales.
The Tesla Model S retained its third-place position, with 12,353 sales.
Nissan Leaf on scenic drives in EuropeEnlarge Photo
Tesla Motors refuses to release official monthly sales results or break down its quarterly delivery reports by country or region.
ALSO SEE: Long-range Renault Zoe electric car reviewed in U.K.: Forbidden Fruit (Dec 2016)
Just outside the top three, the BMW i3 achieved 9,726 sales, while the Volkswagen e-Golf reached 6,666 sales.
The two German electric cars were followed by the Kia Soul EV, with 4,433 sales.
2017 BMW i3Enlarge Photo
The Volkswagen e-Up (2,565 sales) and Peugeot iOn (1,893 sales) rounded out the top 10 battery-electric cars.
Both are small city cars not sold in the U.S.
The e-Up is an electric version of the VW Up, while the iOn is a re-badged Mitsubishi i-MiEV.
2017 Mitsubishi Outlander Plug-In HybridPlug-in hybrids
2017 Mitsubishi Outlander Plug-In HybridEnlarge Photo
Just as the Zoe continued its streak as best-selling battery-electric car through the end of 2016, the Mitsubishi Outlander Plug-In Hybrid held onto the top spot in its category.
The Outlander Plug-In Hybrid has been on sale in Europe and Japan for several years, but a U.S. launch has been repeatedly delayed.
It may finally arrive in U.S. showrooms this summer, making it almost three years late.
For now, the Mitsubishi crossover seems to be doing well enough in Europe, racking up 21,328 sales through December 2016.
Just below it in the plug-in hybrid rankings were two Volkswagen models.
The Passat GTE achieved 13,248 sales, while the Golf GTE reached 11,351 sales.
2017 Mercedes-Benz C350eEnlarge Photo
They were followed by the BMW 330e (8,702 sales), and Audi A3 Sportback e-tron (6,894 sales).
Three more BMW models rounded out the top 10 best-selling plug-in hybrids.
The BMW 225xe Active Tourer racked up 5,915 sales.
2016 BMW 225xeEnlarge Photo
The X5 xDrive40e SUV landed in ninth place, with 5,393 sales.
Finally, the range-extended i3 REx recorded 5,322 sales.
This model is considered a plug-in hybrid for the purposes of the EAFO tally.