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Ford's Gas Mileage Goals Spawn 3-Cylinder Engine, New Hybrids

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2010 Beijing auto show

2010 Beijing auto show

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Smaller, more efficient engines that equal the power of larger, lazier ones are how automakers all over the world plan to raise fuel economy.

Today Ford [NYSE:F] doubled down on engineering as the best way to boost gas mileage, with announcements about three separate technologies it plans to use in U.S. market vehicles.

It not only said it would design and build an eight-speed automatic transmission, its first, but will also bring assembly of its hybrid transmission system in house. That system had previously been built in Japan.

First-ever three

And perhaps most significantly, it will build the first three-cylinder production engine in Ford's 108-year history--and even install it in U.S. market vehicles, though the models were left unspecified for the moment.

Designed in Ford's Dunton engine works in the United Kingdom, the three-cylinder is sufficiently advanced that Ford said it is now undergoing final calibration.

The turbocharged 1.0-liter EcoBoost three will deliver horsepower and torque equal to or even better than conventional four-cylinder engines of up to 1.6 liters.

Ford Start Concept

Ford Start Concept

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Derrick Kuzak, Ford's group VP of global product development, called the tiny triple "a little dynamo."

Clever technologies

It was first previewed at the 2010 Beijing auto show, in the Ford Start concept car, and at the time, Ford said the engine would emit less than the crucial number of 100 g/km (grams of carbon dioxide per kilometer).

The little engine includes several advanced technology features.

The cooling system is split, to warm the block before the head, getting the engine up to its most efficient (and lowest-emitting) temperature more quickly.

The engine manifold and head are formed as a single casting, reducing weight and shortening the distance exhaust gases travel before they reach the catalytic converter.

More details this fall

And the EcoBoost designation, indicating an engine with gasoline direct injection and a turbo, uses exhaust-gas energy powering the turbocharger to pack more air into the combustion chamber. Mixed with more gasoline, it produces greater power from a smaller displacement.

2011 Ford C-Max Energi Plug-In Hybrid Concept live photos. Photo by Joe Nuxoll.

2011 Ford C-Max Energi Plug-In Hybrid Concept live photos. Photo by Joe Nuxoll.

Enlarge Photo

More technical details, as well as the Ford models it will launch in, are to be released at this fall's Frankfurt Motor Show.

One feature we expect it to have, at least in European and Asian cars, is start-stop, or the ability to turn off when the car comes to a halt, then quickly restart to move away.

Meanwhile, likely candidates are the upcoming production version of the subcompact Ford B-Max tall wagon concept first shown this spring at the Geneva Motor Show, and perhaps the U.S.-market Ford Fiesta as well.

Ford's EcoBoost lineup now ranges from the 1.0-liter three up to a 3.5-liter V-6. The company said in 2006 it would offer an EcoBoost option on 90 percent of its U.S. vehicles by 2013. It expects to be building 1.5 million EcoBoost engines globally that year.

Building hybrid transmissions at home

Ford also said that it will begin assembling the electric continuously variable transmission (eCVT) systems for its next-generation hybrid vehicles in suburban Detroit, replacing a unit now assembled in Japan.

2011 Ford Vertrek concept

2011 Ford Vertrek concept

Enlarge Photo

The company will begin rolling out hybrids with more compact and powerful lithium-ion battery packs, which will supersede the nickel-metal-hydride packs it has used since the first Ford Escape Hybrid launched in 2004.

For the 2012 model year, Ford will sell two hybrid versions of its C-Max small minivan. They are the C-Max Hybrid and Energi plug-in hybrid, which it previewed at this year's Detroit Auto Show.

Along with a replacement for the Ford Escape compact crossover--previewed by the Vertrek concept--the hybrid versions of the C-Max and Escape are likely to be the first vehicles to use the new Ford-assembled hybrid transmission.

[Ford]

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Comments (9)
  1. I have never really understood why fewer cylinders means higher efficiency. If you made a 1 L 3 cylinder and a 1 L 4 cylinder, will the 3 cylinder always be more efficient? and why?
     
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  2. All things being equal, the fewer the number of cylinders, the less the reciprocating mass. The differences are not very large, as can be seen in mileage numbers for the same car with either 4 or 6 cylinder engines. Turbocharging per se does not increase the efficiency of an engine - it just makes it act as though it had a larger displacement.
     
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  3. Hmmm. So it has to do with reciprocating mass. I thought it might have to do with increased surface area of piston rings.
     
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  4. I think it also has to do with how many power strokes happen between each revolution. You can use less fuel to keep it spinning at the same speed comparatively when you have an odd number of cylinders. Though I notice there seems to really be a cutoff in engine downsizing where you no longer see that much of a real world efficiency gain....
     
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  5. Suzuki equipped the Swift with a 1.0L 3-cyl back in the 90's. If I remember right it was rated in the 50 mpg range for the highway. It used only two piston rings for low friction and a lightened camshaft also. Seems like some of the "new" technology has been around for awhile it's just how it is applied.
     
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  6. Great question, John Briggs.

    There are two major sources of friction in an engine: mechanical friction (rings rubbing against the cylinder walls) and air pumping losses.

    Comparing a 4 against a 3 cylinder engine, the 3 has one less set of rings, so has less mechanical friction.

    The pistons of the 3 is one-third larger than the pistons of the 4, so the valves are similarly bigger. Pumping losses occur when when air enters and the exhaust exits through the valves. There is something called the Reynolds number in fluid dynamics. At the same engine RPM, the R-number is larger in the vicinity of the smaller valves, leading to greater losses.

    A crude analogy is like trying to drink through a small instead of a larger straw.
     
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  7. Markup456
    Thanks for the thoughtful reply. I am a Mechanical Engineer, so I can follow what you are saying.

    So fewer cylinders are better for efficiency and presumably lower cost. I guess the reason that we don't use them more often is that they don't run as smoothly. There will be few combustions per revolution and making the engine nicely balanced will be more difficult.

    Later
    John C. Briggs
     
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  8. Ford claims it is their quietest engine. The 3 in the Swift sold here as a Geo Metro was a blur to look at when it idled, but with soft motor mounts felt smooth enough inside the car.
     
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  9. For spark-ignited engines, fewer cylinders is not necessarily better for efficiency, and in fact, can often be worse. While friction would be decreased, each combustion chamber would be larger; the flame front would have greater distance to travel, increasing propensity for knock. This knock would be traditionally mitigated by reducing compression ratio and/or retarding spark timing. The net effect: whatever you gain by reducing friction may be more than offset by what you loose in expansion work.
     
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